Mobility-Covid-19 Impact Quadrant : Quantitative Approach to Analyze Community Responses to Covid-19 Pandemic

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Usman Bustaman

Abstract

There are two premises regarding the relationship between mobility and COVID-19, namely: (1) mobility affects the spread of COVID-19, or (2) the spread of COVID-19 affects mobility. This paper further explores both premises to analyze community responses to COVID-19 pandemic using Google Mobility Index (mobility) and the COVID-19 Spread Risk Index (risk) of Indonesia. Cross-correlogram of both indices is examined to determine optimum values called Risk Detection Time (Rdt). A scatter plot of Rdt and its correlation coefficient resulted Mobility-COVID-19 Impact Quadrant which maps the community responses into four zones based on quadrant ‘conscious–competence’ framework. The results confirmed both premises: (1) risk can be triggered by mobility in the previous few days, or (2) mobility can represent the community responses to risk information in the previous few days. Regarding the mobility restriction implemented in Indonesia, the analysis shows that the community responses leaped from Learning zone in PSBB period (15/03/2020 to 31/05/2020) to the Recovery zone in the New Normal and PPKM period (01/06/2020 to 02/07/2021). However, the policy was late responded so that the recovery target did not go as expected and brought the community into Fear and Uncertainty zone in the Emergency PPKM period (starting from 03/07/2021).

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
BUSTAMAN, Usman. Mobility-Covid-19 Impact Quadrant : Quantitative Approach to Analyze Community Responses to Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Aplikasi Statistika & Komputasi Statistik, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 1, p. 55-68, mar. 2022. ISSN 2615-1367. Available at: <https://jurnal.stis.ac.id/index.php/jurnalasks/article/view/387>. Date accessed: 26 june 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.34123/jurnalasks.v14i1.387.
Section
Articles

References

[1] Borkowski P, Jażdżewska-Gutta M and Szmelter-Jarosz A 2021 Lockdowned: Everyday mobility changes in response to COVID-19 J. Transp. Geogr. 90
[2] Coven J and Gupta A 2020 Disparities in Mobility Responses to Covid-19
[3] Schlosser F, Maier B F, Jack O, Hinrichs D, Zachariae A and Brockmann D 2021 COVID-19 lockdown induces disease-mitigating structural changes in mobility networks Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 117 32883–90
[4] Nugroho Y D and Pratiwi Kasuma K A 2019 Analisis Perubahan Mobilitas Terhadap Proses Remediasi Dampak Covid-19 Di Indonesia Menggunakan Data Google Mobility Semin. Nas. Off. Stat. 344–8
[5] Shalihah N F and Hardiyanto S 2020 Saat Wuhan seperti Kota Mati akibat Virus Corona... Kompas, 26 Jan 2020
[6] Masyrafina I and Firmansyah T 2020 Akibat Corona, Wuhan Seperti Kota Mati Republika, 26 Jan 2020
[7] Nouvellet P, Bhatia S, Cori A, Ainslie K E C, Baguelin M, Bhatt S, Boonyasiri A, Brazeau N F, Cattarino L, Cooper L V., Coupland H, Cucunuba Z M, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Dighe A, Djaafara B A, Dorigatti I, Eales O D, van Elsland S L, Nascimento F F, FitzJohn R G, Gaythorpe K A M, Geidelberg L, Green W D, Hamlet A, Hauck K, Hinsley W, Imai N, Jeffrey B, Knock E, Laydon D J, Lees J A, Mangal T, Mellan T A, Nedjati-Gilani G, Parag K V., Pons-Salort M, Ragonnet-Cronin M, Riley S, Unwin H J T, Verity R, Vollmer M A C, Volz E, Walker P G T, Walters C E, Wang H, Watson O J, Whittaker C, Whittles L K, Xi X, Ferguson N M and Donnelly C A 2021 Reduction in mobility and COVID-19 transmission Nat. Commun. 12 1–9
[8] Engle S, Stromme J and Zhou A 2020 Staying at Home: Mobility Effects of COVID-19 Covid Econ. 86–102
[9] Firdaus Z F and Wijayanto A W 2020 Tinjauan Big Data Mobilitas Penduduk Pada Masa Social Distancing Dan New Normal Serta Keterkaitannya Dengan Jumlah Kasus Covid-19 Semin. Nas. Off. Stat. 265–72
[10] Khairu Nissa N, Nugraha Y, Finola C F, Ernesto A, Kanggrawan J I and Suherman A L 2020 Evaluasi Berbasis Data: Kebijakan Pembatasan Mobilitas Publik dalam Mitigasi Persebaran COVID-19 di Jakarta J. Sist. Cerdas 3 84–94
[11] Presiden S Lima Arahan Presiden terkait Penerapan Adaptasi Kebiasaan Baru 10 Junie 2020
[12] Zhou Y, Xu R, Hu D, Yue Y, Li Q and Xia J Articles Effects of human mobility restrictions on the spread of COVID-19 in Shenzhen , China : a modelling study using mobile phone data Lancet Digit. Heal. 2 e417–24
[13] Wang S, Liu Y and Hu T 2020 Examining the Change of Human Mobility Adherent to Social Restriction Policies and Its E ff ect on COVID-19 Cases in Australia Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Heal. 17
[14] Hadjidemetriou G M, Sasidharan M, Kouyialis G and Parlikad A K 2020 The impact of government measures and human mobility trend on COVID-19 related deaths in the UK Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect. 6 100167
[15] Bryant P and Elofsson A 2020 Estimating the impact of mobility patterns on COVID-19 infection rates in 11 European countries PeerJ 8 1–17
[16] Ghiffari R A 2020 Dampak Populasi Dan Mobilitas Perkotaan Terhadap Penyebaran Pandemi Covid-19 Di Jakarta Tunas Geogr. 9 81
[17] Tovstiga N and Tovstiga G 2020 COVID-19: a knowledge and learning perspective Knowl. Manag. Res. Pract.
[18] Google 2021 COVID-19 Community Mobility Report, Indonesia May 2, 2021
[19] Google 2021 Laporan Mobilitas Masyarakat Selama Pandemi COVID-19, Indonesia, 2 Mei 2021
[20] Cartenì A, Di Francesco L and Martino M 2020 How mobility habits influenced the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from the Italian case study Sci. Total Environ. 741 140489
[21] Auliya S F and Wulandari N 2021 The Impact of Mobility Patterns on the Spread of the COVID-19 in Indonesia J. Inf. Syst. Eng. Bus. Intell. 7 31–41
[22] Iacus S, Santamaria C, Sermi F, Spyratos S, Tarchi D and Vespe M 2020 How human mobility explains the initial spread of COVID-19 J R C Tech. Reports
[23] Derrick T R and Thomas J M 2004 Time Series Analysis: The Cross-Correlation Function Innovative Analyses of Human Movement ed N Stergiou (Illinois,: Human Kinetics Publishers) pp 189–205
[24] Sulyok M and Walker M 2020 Community movement and COVID-19 : a global study using Google ’ s Community Mobility Reports Epidemiol. Infect. 148 1–9
[25] Gondauri D and Batiashvili M 2020 The Study of the Effects of Mobility Trends on the Statistical Models of the COVID-19 Virus Spreading Electronic 17 17–20
[26] Schober P and Schwarte L A 2018 Correlation coefficients: Appropriate use and interpretation Anesth. Analg. 126 1763–8
[27] Moore D S, Notz W I and Flinger M A 2013 Scatterplots and Correlation The basic practice of statistics (6th ed.) (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company)
[28] Saturwa H N, Suharno S and Ahmad A A 2021 The impact of Covid-19 pandemic on MSMEs J. Ekon. dan Bisnis 24 65–82
[29] Baker M G 2020 Nonrelocatable occupations at increased risk during pandemics: United states, 2018 Am. J. Public Health 110 1126–32
[30] Lee S M, So W Y and Youn H S 2021 Importance-performance analysis of health perception among korean adolescents during the covid-19 pandemic Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18 1–11
[31] Achyunda R A P and Arini S 2020 Measuring the Economics of a Pandemic: How People Mobility depict Economics? An Evidence of People’s Mobility Data towards Economic Activities. The 8th IMF Statistical Forum
[32] Sampi J and Jooste C 2020 Nowcasting Economic Activity in Times of COVID-19, An Approximation from the Google Community Mobility Report
[33] Matsumura K, Ohi Y, Sugo T and Takahashi K 2021 Nowcasting Economic Activity with Mobility Data (Tokyo)
[34] Adiwijaya T 2020 Virus Corona dan Pembatasan Pelayanan Publik Ombudsman, 2020-03-26
[35] Syaefudin R A, Suseno W H and Teravosa G 2021 Kebijakan Bekerja Dari Rumah (Work From Home) Bagi Aparatur Sipil Negara Pada Kementerian Kesehatan Civ. Serv. BKN 4 85–91
[36] KemenPAN RB 2020 SE Menpan No. 19 Tahun 2020 Tentang Penyesuaian Sistem Kerja Aparat Sipil Negara dalam Upaya Pencegahan Penyebaran Covid-19 (Indonesia)
[37] Simarmata H M P and Simarmata P P 2020 Tantangan Penerapan Sistem Belajar Online Bagi Mahasiswa Ditengah Pandemik Covid-19 J. Ekon. dan Bisnis 3 277
[38] Kemendikbud 2020 SE Mendikbud No. 4 Tahun 2020 Tentang Pelaksanaan Kebijakan Pendidikan dalam Masa Darurat Penyebaran Corona Virus Desease (Indonesia)
[39] Indonesia G of 2019 PP No. 21 Tahun 2020 Tentang Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar dalam Rangka Percepatan Penanganan Vorona Virus Disease (Covid-19) vol 2019 (Indonesia)
[40] Ristyawati A 2020 Efektifitas Kebijakan Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar Dalam Masa Pandemi Corona Virus 2019 oleh Pemerintah Sesuai Amanat UUD NRI Tahun 1945 Adm. Law Gov. J. 3 240–9
[41] Kesehatan K 2020 Permenkes No. 9 Tahun 2020 tentang Pedoman Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar dalam Rangka Percepatan Penanganan Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) (Indonesia)
[42] Kesehatan K 2020 Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia nomor HK.01.07/Menkes/328/2020 tentang Panduan Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) di Tempat Kerja Perkantoran dan Industri dalam Mendukung Keberlangsungan Usaha pada Situasi Pand (Indonesia)
[43] Indonesia G of 2020 SE No. HK.02.01/MENKES/335/2020 tentang Protokol Pencegahan Penularan Corona Virus Disease (Covid-19) di Tempat Kerja Sektor Jasa dan Perdagangan (Area Publik) dalam Mendukung Keberlangsungan Usaha (Indonesia)
[44] Idris M 2020 Mulai 1 Juni, Ini Skenario Tahapan New Normal untuk Pemulihan Ekonomi Kompas, 26 May 2020
[45] Rosidi A and Nurcahyo E 2020 Penerapan New Normal (Kenormalan Baru) Dalam Penanganan Covid-19 sebagai Pandemi Dalam Hukum Positif NASPA J. 42 1
[46] MenPANRB H 2020 Aturan Baru Sistem Kerja ASN Berdasarkan Kategori Zonasi Risiko Wilayah
[47] Menpan RB 2020 SE Menteri PANRB No 67 Tahun 2020 Tentang Perubahan Atas Surat Edaran Menteri PANRB No. 58/2020 tentang Sistem Kerja Pegawai Aparatur Sipil Negara dalam Tatanan Normal Baru. (Indonesia)
[48] Mahardika A G and Saputra R 2021 Kedudukan Hukum Pemberlakuan Pembatasan Kegiatan Masyarakat dalam Sistem Ketatanegaraan Indonesia J. Huk. dan Perundang-undangan 1
[49] Menteri Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia 2021 Instruksi Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 01 Tahun 2021 Tentang Pemberlakukan Pembatasan Kegiatan Untuk Pengendalian Penyebaran Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Indonesia)
[50] Yahdin L and Rusnanda Y A 2020 Sebelas Bulan Pandemi Covid-19 di Indonesia Kognisia, 26 January 2021
[51] Rastika I 2021 PPKM Jawa-Bali Berlaku Hari Ini, Berikut Kegiatan yang Dibatasi dan Aturannya Kompas, 11 January 2021
[52] Permatasari D 2021 Kebijakan covid-19 dari PSBB hingga PPKM Empat Level Kompas, 31 Juli 2021
[53] Farisa F C and Meiliana D 2021 PPKM Mikro Berlaku mulai 9 Februari, Ini Aturan yang Harus Diketahui Kompas, 8 Febr. 2021
[54] Kemendagri 2021 Instruksi Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 03 Tahun 2021 Tentang Pemberlakuan Pembatasan Kegiatan Masyarakat Berbasis Mikro dan Pembentukan Posko Penanganan Corona Virus Disease 2019 di Tingkat Desa dan Kelurahan Untuk Pengendalian Penyebaran Corona Virus Disea (Indonesia)
[55] Dielman T E 1983 Pooled cross-sectional and time series data: A survey of current statistical methodology Am. Stat. 37 111–22
[56] Baltagi B H 2008 Pooling Time-Series of Cross-Section Data Econometrics (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg) pp 295–322
[57] Sari R K 2021 Identifikasi Penyebab Ketidakpatuhan Warga Terhadap Penerapan Protokol Kesehatan 3M Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 J. AKRAB JUARA 6 84–94
[58] Nugraheny D E and Galih B 2021 Dimulai 6 Mei, Ini Rincian Aturan Larangan Mudik Lebaran 2021 Kompas, 3 May 2021
[59] Maulida H, Jatimi A, Heru M J A, Munir Z and Rahman H F 2020 Depresi pada Komunitas dalam Menghadapi Pandemi COVID-19: A Systematic Review J. Sains dan Kesehat. 2 122–8
[60] Irda Sari 2020 Analisis Dampak Pandemi Covid- 19 Terhadap Kecemasan Masyarakat : Literature Review Bina Gener. J. Kesehat. 12 69–76
[61] CNN Indonesia 2021 Kata Psikolog soal Fenomena Panic Buying saat PPKM Darurat CNN Indones. 07/07/2021